GUGLIELMINO & ASSOCIATES, LLC

Dr. Lucy M.Guglielmino - lguglielmino@rocketmail.com
Dr. Paul J. Guglielmino - guglielmino@rocketmail.com
772 429-2425

Quick Facts about the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS)

For further information, click the links on the left.

What is the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale?

The SDLRS is a self-report questionnaire with Likert-type items developed by Dr. Lucy M. Guglielmino in l977. It is designed to measure the complex of attitudes, skills, and characteristics that comprise an individual's current level of readiness to manage his or her own learning.

Since its initial development, the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) also known as the Learning Preference Assessment, (LPA) has been used widely. The SDLRS-A has been used by more than 500 major organizations around the world. The instrument has been translated into Spanish (Castilian, Columbian, and Cuban), French, German, Italian, Korean, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Russian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Farsi, Dutch, Polish and Turkish. More than 70,000 adults and 5,000 children have taken the SDLRS/LPA. It has been used in numerous research studies, including more than 90 doctoral dissertations.

McCune (1987/88), after examining 67 studies of self-direction in learning done between 1977 and 1987, determined that the SDLRS was by far the most frequently used instrument. Similarly, Long and Redding (1991) indicated that, of the dissertations done on the topic of self-direction in learning between 1966 and 1991, 43 (27%) . . . were based on the SDLRS." Based on numerous literature reviews, the SDLRS/LPA has for some time been the most valid and widely used quantitative instrument in the study of self-directed learning. Overviews of research using the instrument can be found in Brockett and Hiemstra (1991), Merriam and Caffarella (1999, 2007), and Delahaye and Choy (2000).

Brockett (1985b) cites the SDLRS as a stimulus for research, identifying three major streams of research in self-direction in learning, with the second major stream focusing on "the relationship between self-directedness and a range of psychosocial variables." He concludes that "the SDLRS has helped to move self-directed learning research beyond description toward a greater understanding of the relationship between self directedness and certain personological variables" (p. 56). Long (1991) has asserted, in fact, that the availability of the SDLRS has led to an increase in research in this area. "It is likely," he contends, " that the greatest boost to the study of self-directed learning was provided by Lucy Guglielmino's [SDLRS]." ( p. 12).

The adult form of the questionnaire (SDLRS-A or Learning Preference Assessment) has 58 items. Respondents are asked to read a statement and then indicate the degree to which that statement accurately describes their own attitudes, beliefs, actions or skills. There is also an elementary form, the SDLRS-E, and an ABE version (SDLRS-ABE). All three forms can be accessed online (in English) or can be ordered in paper format. All forms of the SDLRS and LPA are copyrighted, and may not be used without permission or purchase.



How was the SDLRS developed?

The Delphi Survey
In order to determine the content of the SDLRS, a three-round Delphi survey of authorities on self-direction was done. Of the 20 persons asked to participate in the survey, 14 agreed. The participants were: Drs. Herbert A. Alf, B. Frank Brown, Edward G. Buffie, Arthur W. Chickering, Patricia M. Coolican,Gerald T. Gleason, Winslow R. Hatch, Cyril O. Houle (first two rounds only), Malcolm S. Knowles, Wilbert J. McKeachie, Barry R. Morstain, Mary M. Thompson, Allen Tough, and Morris Weitman.

The Delphi survey involved the listing and rating of characteristics which the authorities considered important for self-direction in learning, including attitudes, abilities, and personality characteristics. Characteristics emerging from the Delphi survey with a median rating of desirable, necessary, or essential for self-direction in learning were used as a basis for the construction of items for the SDLRS. A detailed description of the Delphi process and of the original developmental work on the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale is described in Dr. Guglielmino's dissertation:

Guglielmino, L. M. (1978). Development of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 6467A.

Three pertinent quotes from the dissertation are listed below.

Assumptions Framing Guglielmino's Delphi Study

The following statement was sent to the Delphi panel as an introduction to the first questionnaire in the Delphi process:
Description of the Highly Self-Directed Learner Derived from the Delphi Process
This description was derived from the most highly-rated items on the Delphi survey after the third round. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) note that the characteristics continue to provide "the most-used operational definition". (p.121)
The Initial Tryout
After the items were constructed, reviewed, and revised, the instrument was administered to 307 subjects in Georgia, Canada and Virginia. Item analysis data were used to select items for revision and to estimate the parameters of the test. A reliability of .87 was estimated.The SDLRS was subsequently expanded to 58 items. All the validity studies conducted have used the 58 item scale. Based on a 1988 compilation of 3151 respondents to the SDLRS, the Pearson split-half reliability estimate is .94. Reference:

McCune, S.K., Guglielmino, L. M. & Garcia, G. (1990). Adult self-direction in learning: A preliminary meta-analytic investigation of research using the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. In Long, H.B. & Associates, Advances in self-directed learning research. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.


What information is available on the validity and reliability of the SDLRS/LPA?

Based on a population of 3,151 individuals from the United States and Canada, a split-half Pearson product moment correlation with a Spearman-Brown correction produced a reliability coefficient of .94 (Guglielmino & Guglielmino, 1991). Most published studies on populations over twenty years old report similar reliability figures that fall within a range of .72 - .96. In addition to internal reliability estimates, Finestone (1984) and Wiley (1981) reported test-retest reliability coefficients of .82 and .79 respectively.

Although there have been some criticisms of the SDLRS, (Brockett, 1987; Field, 1989; Straka & Hinz, 1996), the vast majority of studies have supported the reliability and validity of the instrument (see, for example, Delahaye & Smith, 1995; Durr, 1992; Finestone, 1984; Graeve, 1987; Hassan, 1982; Long & Agyekum, 1984; McCune & Guglielmino, 1991; Posner, 1989; Russell, 1988). The SDLRS and its self-scoring form, the Learning Preference Assessment, are the most frequently used instruments for assessing self-directed learning readiness (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007).

The most recent comprehensive review of the SDLRS/LPA by Delahaye and Choy examined content, construct and criterion-related validity as well as its reliability (both internal consistency and test-retest). They note that "there has been extensive support for the LPA in the literature as an accurate and useful instrument for measuring readiness for self-directed learning." Addressing some criticism and minor concerns, they conclude: "While bearing some cautions in mind, the LPA can be used with acceptable confidence to provide an accurate measurement of readiness for self-directed learning."

Citation: Delahaye, B. & Choy, S. (2000). The Learning Preference Assessment (Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale). In Maltby, J., Lewis, C. A., & Hill, A. (2000). Commissioned reviews of 250 psychological tests. Edwin Mellen Press, Wales, U.K.


SAMPLE ITEMS

Learning Preference Assessment
Items 1-19 Only
© Lucy M. Guglielmino, 1977

Instructions: This is a questionnaire designed to gather data on learning preferences and attitudes towards learning. After reading each item, please indicate the degree to which you feel that statement is true of you. There are no right or wrong answers. Please read each choice carefully and choose the response which best expresses your feeling.

There is no time limit for the questionnaire. Try not to spend too much time on any one item; however, your first reaction to the question will usually be the most accurate.


Responses
1 = Almost never true of me; I hardly ever feel this way.
2 = Not often true of me; I feel this way less than half the time.
3 = Sometimes true of me; I feel this way about half the time.
4 = Usually true of me; I feel this way more than half the time.
5 = Almost always true of me; there are very few times when I don't feel this way.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)

  1. I see the asessment referred to as the SDLRS and the LPA. Is it the same assessment?
    Yes. The original name was the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, but the term Learning Preference Assessment is always used for test-takers, to avoid possible response bias.

  2. How will the scores for my group be organized?
    The scores will be listed by name and/or ID number in the order in which the individuals took the test.

  3. What will my data analysis include?
    Our normal data report gives you the individual's name or ID, SDLRS score, sample mean, standard deviation, variance, range, standard error, kurtosis, minimum and maximum score, skewness, number of valid observations, and missing observations. This information will allow you to compare each individual score to the sample mean and to the adult norms.

  4. What demographic information is collected with the SDLRS/LPA data?
    The following demographic information is collected: gender, age, country, highest level of education completed and occupation.

  5. How can I collect other information that I need?

    ONLINE ADMINISTRATION
    You can use as many as ten additional questions. Space for responding to your additional questions (A-J) is available in the demographic data collection section at the end of the assessment. Each question can have up to 9 different responses. These can be helpful if you want to designate a testing date, look at data by testing sites, or compare the scores to other data.

    When you send the participants the password to enter the site, you will need to give them the items you wish for them to respond to (such as department, length of employment, year in school, performance rating, etc.)

    For example, if you were gathering data on individuals engaged in online learning, you might want to know their levels of computer competency or experience with online learning. In that case, when you give them the link to the test site and the password they are to use, you would include a statement something like this:

    At the end of the assessment, be sure to respond to questions A. and B. (below) in the "Additional Questions" section. Please print these out before you go to the website so you will have them for reference:

    A. What is your level of computer competency?
    1. Beginner
    2. Intermediate
    3. Expert

    B. What is your level of experience with on-line courses?
    1. Beginner
    2. Intermediate
    3. Expert

    Another example: If you are gathering data from students in a number of countries, question A might be:

    A. Indicate the country in which you are currently studying:
    1. Australia
    2. China
    3. England
    4. France
    5. Germany
    6. Jamaica
    7. United States
    8. West Indies
    9. None of the above

    GATHERING ADDITIONAL DATA USING PAPER COPIES
    Contact guglielmino@rocketmail.com to discuss the use of the identification number and special codes sections of the answer sheet.

  6. Can I obtain correlations of the SDLRS/LPA with other variables?
    If you want to examine the data by sex, age, race, or by any other demographic or correlate the SDLRS/LPA score with other scores or data, we are able to provide you with any statistical analysis you might want. Please email us for a price estimate: guglielmino@rocketmail.com

  7. How will missing responses be handled?
    Missing values will be replaced with 3 (the middle value). Cases missing 5 or more values will be listed, but omitted from the overall statistics for your group.

  8. What information will I need to give my group for them to take the assessment?
    A sample email to participants is provided below:

    Our {company, institution} is conducting research to assist us in {tailoring our learning options to your needs, planning our training operation, revising our curriculum, etc.}
    Please respond to the Learning Preference Assessmentonline by ____________ (deadline).
    The web address to access the test is: ____________
    Your password is: ______________

ORDER TESTS

To order online tests please follow the link Order Online Tests.

To order paper tests please follow the link Order Paper Tests. (Shipping and scoring charges will be added.)

The following three forms of the SDLRS/LPA are now available both online and in paper format.
SDLRS-AFOR THE GENERAL ADULT POPULATION (58 items)
SDLRS-ABEFOR ADULTS WITH LOW READING LEVELS
OR NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKERS (34 items)
SDLRS-E FOR ELEMENTARY CHILDREN (58 items)
Volume discounts are as follows:
No. of testsPrice
1 6.95 USD each
2-100 4.95 USD each
101-200 3.95 USD each
201-500 3.50 USD each
over 5003.25 USD each
All payments should be made in US $.
Payment options:
Credit card (PayPal)Go to www.PayPal.com, open an account if you do not already have one and use our e-mail address as guglielmino@rocketmail.com when prompted in order to pay us. As soon as we receive your funds, we will send you the access code and instructions how to proceed. If you use a different name when you use PayPal than the name on your order form, please let us know so we can give you proper credit.

How to use PayPal:
  1. Go to www.PayPal.com
  2. Click "Send Money"
  3. Type our email address as guglielmino@rocketmail.com
  4. Type your email address
  5. Complete credit card information
  6. Send funds to us
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Guglielmino & Associates
7339 Reserve Creek Drive
Port St. Lucie, FL 34986
FAX: 772-429-2425
(notify guglielmino@rocketmail.com)
Advanced statistical analysis of your SDLRS data is available if desired. Please call or email for an estimate of the cost.
Lucy M. Guglielmino, Ed. D.
Paul J. Guglielmino, Ed. D.

7339 Reserve Creek Drive, Port St. Lucie, FL 34986
TEL (772) 429-2425   FAX (772) 429-2425
E-mail:guglielmino@rocketmail.com


HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR SDLRS-A/LPA SCORE

Your score is a measure of your current level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness.

SDLRS-A scoreReadiness for self-directed learning
58-201Below average
202-226Average
227-290Above average

Some people have a low level of readiness because they have consistently been exposed to other-directed instruction. Recent research has indicated that country culture may affectscores. The most important thing to remember about your score is that it can be improved. Most persons with below average levels of self-directed learning readiness can increase their skills with practice.

The average score for adults completing the SDLRS-A questionnaire is 214 and the standard deviation is 25.59. The SDLRS/LPA measures your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research has suggested that individuals who have developed high self-directed learning skills tend to perform better in jobs requiring:

       1. A high degree of problem solving ability.
       2. A high degree of creativity.
       3. A high degree of change.

Persons with high SDLRS scores usually prefer to determine their learning needs and plan and implement their own learning. This does not mean that they will never choose to be in a structured learning situation. They may well choose traditional courses or workshops as a part of a learning plan.

Persons with average SDLRS scores are more likely to be successful in more independent situations, but are not fully comfortable with handling the entire process of identifying their learning needs and planning and implementing the learning.

Persons with below average SDLRS scores usually prefer very structured learning options such as lecture and traditional classroom settings.

Again, your SDLRS score indicates your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research studies have proven that levels of self-directed learning readiness can be raised through appropriate educational interventions.

HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR SDLRS-ABE SCORE

Your score is a measure of your current level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness.

SDLRS-ABE scoreReadiness for self-directed learning
34-119Below average
120-138Average
139-170Above average

Some people have a low level of readiness because they have consistently been exposed to other-directed instruction. The most important thing to remember about your score is that it can be improved. Most persons with below average levels of self-directed learning readiness can increase their skills with practice.

The average score for adults completing the SDLRS-ABE questionnaire is 129 and the standard deviation is 18.0.The SDLRS measures your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research has suggested that individuals who have developed high self-directed learning skills tend to perform better in jobs requiring:

       1. A high degree of problem solving ability.
       2. A high degree of creativity.
       3. A high degree of change.

Persons with high SDLRS scores usually prefer to determine their learning needs and plan and implement their own learning. This does not mean that they will never choose to be in a structured learning situation. They may well choose traditional courses or workshops as a part of a learning plan.

Persons with average SDLRS scores are more likely to be successful in more independent situations, but are not fully comfortable with handling the entire process of identifying their learning needs and planning and implementing the learning.

Persons with below average SDLRS scores usually prefer very structured learning options such as lecture and traditional classroom settings.

Again, your SDLRS score indicates your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research studies have proven that levels of self-directed learning readiness can be raised through appropriate educational interventions.

HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR SDLRS-E/LPA SCORE

Your score is a measure of your current level of Self-Directed Learning Readiness.

SDLRS-E scoreReadiness for self-directed learning
58-188Low
189-203Below average
204-218Average
219-232Above average
233-290High

Some people have a low level of readiness because they have consistently been exposed to other-directed instruction. Recent research has indicated that country culture may affectscores. The most important thing to remember about your score is that it can be improved. Most persons with below average levels of self-directed learning readiness can increase their skills with practice.

The average score for children completing the SDLRS-E questionnaire is 207 and the standard error of the mean is 1.04. The SDLRS/LPA measures your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research has suggested that individuals who have developed high self-directed learning skills tend to perform better in tasks involving:

       1. A high degree of problem solving ability.
       2. A high degree of creativity.
       3. A high degree of change.

Persons with high SDLRS scores usually are more successful in recognizing their learning needs and can often plan and implement individual learning projects.

Persons with average SDLRS scores are likely to be successful in more independent learning situations, but may not be fully comfortable with planning and implementing individual learning projects.

Persons with below average SDLRS scores usually prefer very structured learning options such as lecture and traditional classroom settings.

Again, your SDLRS score indicates your current level of readiness for self-directed learning. Research studies have proven that levels of self-directed learning readiness can be raised through appropriate educational interventions.


PUBLICATIONS OF RESEARCH USING THE SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING READINESS SCALE (SDLRS) AND THE LEARNING PREFERENCE ASSESSMENT (LPA) : A PARTIAL LIST

In 1977, Dr. Lucy M. Guglielmino developed, field-tested, and revised the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale. It has since been translated into French, Spanish (Castilian, Cuban, and Colombian), Japanese, Chinese, Korean, German, Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Italian, Farsi, Malay, Dutch, Polish, Russian, Afrikaans, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Turkish, and used in hundreds of research efforts in 40 countries, including a large number of master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The SDLRS is cited in numerous articles and books relating to adult education, and is generally recognized as the most valid and widely-used instrument of its kind. (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner 2007). The self-scoring form, called the Learning Preference Assessment (LPA) was developed in 1991. This list of publications of research using the scale and reviews of research related to it is, of necessity, a work in progress.The latest complete review is by Delahaye and Choy (2000).

Abbott, J., & Dahmus, S. (1991). Using the Guglielmino Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale to assess the appropriateness of self-managed learning systems recommended methodology. Paper presented at the Academy of Management annual meeting.

Adams, A. (1993). An analysis of locus-of-control and self-directed learning readiness in relationship to age, gender, and education level in older adults (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2219.

Adenuga, B. O. (1990). Self-directed learning readiness and learning style preferences of adult learners (Doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 2747.

Adenuga, T. (1991). Demographic and personal factors in predicting self-directedness in learning. In H. B. Long & Associates, Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. 93-106) Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Alspach, J. G. (1991). The self-directed learning readiness of baccalaureate nursing students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 1980.

Anderson, M. R. (1994). Success in distance education courses versus traditional classroom education courses (Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 4339.

Atacanli, M.F. (2007). Ankara Universitesi Typ Fakultesi Ogrencilerinin Ogrenme Tercihi Degerlendirme Olcegi (LPA) Araciligiyla Yasam Boyu Ogrenme Davranisinin Yillara Gore Degisiminin Arastirilmasi. (Yayimlanmamis Yuksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara Universitesi, 2007). [ATACANLI, M.F. (2007). Evaluation of the students' lifelong learning behaviour change across years by the Turkish version of the Learning Preference Assessment (LPA) questionnaire at Ankara University School of Medicine. (Unpublished Master of Science dissertation, Ankara University, 2007).]

Barnes, K. L. (1999). Curiosity and self-directed learning readiness among a sample of baccalaureate nursing students. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Contemporary ideas and practices in self-directed learning (pp. 31-47). Norman, OK: Public Managers' Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Barrett, H. C. (1991). Adult self-directed learning, personal computer competency, and learning style: Models for more effective learning (Doctoral dissertation, The Fielding Institute,1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 778.

Bayha, R. A. (1983). Self-directed learning readiness of Northwest Missouri farmers as related to learning resource choice and valuing (Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 50A.

Bejot, D. D. (1981). The degree of self-directedness and the choices of learning methods (Doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 2434.

Beitler, M. A. (2001). Self-directed learning readiness at General Motors Japan. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning and the information age (pp. 158-169). Boynton Beach, FL: Motorola University.

Beswick, D. M., Chuprina, L., Canipe, J. B., & Cox, B. (2002). Investigating self-directed learning in culture, learning styles, and creativity. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult and vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 473 804)

Beitler, M. A. (2003). Measuring the self-directed learning readiness of managers and management students. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Current developments in e-learning and self-directed learning (pp. 280-289). Boynton Beach, FL: Motorola University.

Bentley, E. L, & West, R. F. (1989). Structural analysis of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: A confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL modeling. Paper presented at the North American Symposium on Adult Self-Directed Learning.

Bitterman, J. A. (1988). Relationship of adults' cognitive style and achieving style to preference for self-directed learning (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Illinois University, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 22, 851.

Bligh, J. G. (1992). Independent learning among general practice trainees: An initial survey. Medical Education, 26, 497-502.

Bonham, L. A. (1991). Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: What does it measure? Adult Education Quarterly, 41, 92-9.

Box, B. J. (1982). Self-directed learning readiness of students and graduates of an associate degree nursing program (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 679A.

Brockett, R. G. (1982). Self-directed learning readiness and life satisfaction among older adults (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 42A.

Brockett, R. G. (1985). Methodological and substantive issues in the measurement of self-directed learning readiness. Adult Education Quarterly, 36, 15-24.

Brockett, R. G. (1985). A response to Brookfield's critical paradigm of self-directed adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 36, 55-59.

Brockett, R. G. (1987). Life satisfaction and learner self-direction: Enhancing quality of life during the later years. Educational Gerontology, 13, 225-237.

Brockett, R.G. & Hiemstra, R. Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. London: Routledge, 1991.

Brookfield, S. (1984). Self-directed adult learning: A critical paradigm. Adult Education Quarterly, 35, 59-71.

Bryan, V., & Schulz, S. F. (1995). Self-directed learning in distance education: The relationship between self-directed learning readiness scores and success in completing distance education programs through home-study training. In H. B. Long & Associates, New dimensions in self-directed learning (pp.135-158). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, University of Oklahoma.

Bryan, V., & Schultz, S.F. (1995). Predictors of student success in distance education. Community Education Digest, 9 (2) 51-58.

Bulik, R.J. (1997). Squelching self-directed learning: Marginalized learners and their environments. In H. B. Long & Associates, Expanding horizons in self-directed learning (pp.153-167). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, College of Education, University of Oklahoma.

Bulik, R.J. (1997). Correlating performance outcomes and self-directed learning. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Current developments in e-learning and self-directed learning (pp. 76-90). Boynton Beach, FL: Motorola University.

Canipe, J. (2001). The relationship between self-directed learning and learning styles (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 00115p.

Caffarella, R., & Caffarella, P. (1986). Self-directedness and learning contracts in adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 36, 226-234.

Carney, F. M. (1985). An exploratory study of learning, style variables related to success or failure in self-directed independent study among intellectually gifted students (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 7A.

Chang, H. (1991). The relationships among contract learning, self-directed learning readiness and learning preferences of undergraduate students at National Taiwan Normal University (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-St.Louis, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 3302.

Cheong, J. W., & H. B. Long (1995). Small-group-centered teaching and its effect on students' readiness for self-directed learning: A case study off a Korean university course. In H. B. Long & Associates, New dimensions in self-directed learning (pp. 257-266). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, University of Oklahoma.

Cheong, C. K., Lee, C. K., & Long, H. B. (1995). Self-directed learning readiness and some related variables: A study of self-educated people in Korea. In H. B. Long & Associates, New dimensions in self-directed learning (pp. 267-276). Norman, OK: Public Managers Center, University of Oklahoma.

Chien, M. (2004). The relationship between self-directed learning readiness and organizational effectiveness. Journal of American Academy of Business, 4(1/2), 285-8.

Choy, S., & Delahaye, B. (2001). Do youth with high scores on the Learning Preference Assessment instrument have a deep approach to learning and an andragogical orientation to study? In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning and the information age (pp. 125-154). Boynton Beach, FL: Motorola University.

Chuprina, L. (2001). The relationship between self-directed learning readiness and cross-cultural adaptability in U.S. expatriate managers styles (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 00155p.

Chuprina, L., & Durr, R. (in press). Self-directed learning readiness as a predictor of cultural adaptability in expatriate managers. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 3 (1).

Chuprina, L., & Durr, R. (2002). The relationship between self-directed learning readiness and cultural adaptability of expatriate assignees at Motorola. In H. B. Long & Associates (Eds.) Twenty-first century advances in self-directed learning (pp. 55-69). Boynton Beach, Fl: Motorola.

Cisneros, R. M. (2004). A study of the relationship between problem-based learning tutorial group activity and student achievement (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, 2003). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5470.

Clark, B. A. (1989). Comparison of self-directed learning readiness of fire executives to the norm and public managers. (Practicum paper, Nova Southeastern University).

Clark, J. A. K. (1991). Self directed learning skills and clinical performance: A comparison of traditionally taught and learning contract-taught nursing students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 2236.

Cloud, D. L. (1993). Association of parent-child self-directed learning readiness: An exploratory study. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 4170.

Confessore, G. J. (1991). Human behavior as a construct for assessing Guglielmino's Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: Pragmatism revisited. In H. B. Long & Associates, Self-directed learning: Consensus and conflict (pp. 123-146) Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Confessore, G.J. (1991). What become of the kids who participated in the1981 Johnson Early College Summer Arts Program? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 15, 64-82.

Confessore, S. J., & Confessore, G. J. (1993). The limits of consensus in the study of self-directed learning. In H. B. Long and Associates, Emerging perspectives of self-directed learning. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Confessore, S. J., & Confessore, G. J. (1994). Learner profiles: A cross-sectional study of selected factors associated with self-directed learning. In H. B. Long and Associates, New ideas about self-directed learning. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing and Higher Education.

Confessore, G. J., Long, H. B., & Redding, T.R. (1993). The status of self-directed learning literature, 1966-1991. In H. B. Long & Associates, Emerging perspectives of self-directed learning (pp. 45- 56). Norman, OK: Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education.

Connolly, R. A. (2004). The correlation between self-directed learning behavior and leadership effectiveness in a business environment. (Doctoral dissertation. Duquesne University, 2005). ProQuest Digital Dissertations, 65(07) 2454.

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